William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, Forgotten Dead: Mob Violence against Mexicans, 1848–1928 (ny, 2013)
William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by people Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond monochrome: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender when you look at the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (summer time 2005), 265–92. For a Texas example, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and United states Manhood during the first many years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal of this western, 49 (cold weather 2010), 41–48. On mob physical violence against “racial other people” within the West, see, for instance, Pfeifer, Rough Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of harsh Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch, The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles while the Massacre of 1871 (nyc, 2012). Another ethnic group perceived as racially different in the postbellum South, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants in the American South, 1886–1910, ” American Nineteenth Century History, 3 (Spring 2002), 45–76 on the lynching of 29 sicilians. In the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the numerous Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the us (ny, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the us: a past history in papers (nyc, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African People in america Confront Lynching: methods of opposition through the Civil War towards the Civil Rights period (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical attitude (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching into the context of Jim Crow tradition, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The customs of Segregation within the Southern, 1890–1940 (ny, 1998), 199–238. For analyses of literary and artistic representations of lynching through the late nineteenth through the mid-twentieth hundreds of years, see Jacqueline Goldsby, the Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American lifestyle and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre, The characteristics of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012). For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and country (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching into the context regarding the Protestant tradition for the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching within the United states South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Violence that is racial in, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching into the people culture of new york’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in less than Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in belated nineteenth- and early twentieth-century black colored movie theater, see Koritha Mitchell, managing Lynching: African American Lynching has, Efficiency, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, regarding the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a residential area study that explored the long legacy of racially inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching into the Heartland: Race and Memory in the us (nyc, 2001). For a synopsis of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( brand New Haven, 2012). When it comes to argument that the end-of-lynching discourse will continue to contour and distort discussion of American mob physical violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, the termination of American Lynching (brand new Brunswick, 2012).
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: ladies therefore the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African women that are american relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (ny, 2011). The cases of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006) for case studies of lynchings of African American women in Georgia, Oklahoma, and South Carolina, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner and the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Black Women. For a journalistic remedy for the lynching of two African US partners in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the very last Mass Lynching in the usa (nyc, 2003). In the lynching of women and kiddies into the West, see Helen McLure, “‘I Suppose you imagine Strange the stripchat com Murder of females and Children’: The American heritage of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009). For a listing of feminine lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in the us: The Recorded situations, 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, difficult Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning within the brand New Southern (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and sc, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob physical physical violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a past history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). On lynching into the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker, This Mob Will Certainly just take My Life: Lynching when you look at the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, new york (Jefferson, 2003).
Kidada E. Williams, They Left Great markings on me personally: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( brand New York, 2012). On African American reactions to mob physical physical physical violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots reactions to Lynching when you look at the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Current scholarship, specially that centered on civil legal rights activism, has started to explore African US reactions to racial terror in the level that is local.
On black reactions to racial terror in fin-de-siecle Florida as well as in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction towards the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony energy in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (nyc, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance into the Mississippi Freedom Movement (nyc, 2013). Ifill, Regarding The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. For the Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., 13, 2005, p. S6364–88 june. For news protection for the U.S. Senate apology see, as an example, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old as a type of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on Resolution regarding Its Failure to assist End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 as well as in Price, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization and its own Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage of this Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. On an endeavor by Bryan Stevenson in addition to Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching internet sites across the Southern, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles together with Protests, the Chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to keep in mind Slavery in which it just happened, ” nyc days, Dec. 10, 2013, pp. 17–18.